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1.4. Maintenance of the car

In use the car there is a deterioration in its technical condition owing to wear of the rubbing surfaces of details, violations of adjusting parameters, aging of rubber products and other phenomena. For the prevention of malfunctions and increase in service life of the car it is exposed to scheduled preventive maintenance which includes lubricant, check and adjustment of knots of the car through a certain run. Frequency of maintenance and the name of works are given in tab. 1.2.

Table 1.2.   Maintenance operations
No. of a payment order
Name of works
Frequency, one thousand km
15
30
45
60
70
1
To check existence of chips, cracks and centers of corrosion of a paint and varnish covering of a body, damages of mastic of arches of wheels and the bottom; operation of locks of doors, cowl and trunk lid
+
 
 
 
 
2
To check a condition of elements of forward and back suspension brackets, their rubber and rubber-metal hinges, plugs and pillows; condition of hinges of steering drafts and their protective caps; protective covers of the steering mechanism, drives of wheels, spherical fingers, condition of hinges and protective covers of draft of gear shifting and jet draft; a condition of protective covers of the directing fingers of a forward brake
+
 
 
 
 
3
To check tightness of consolidations of knots and units
 
+
 
 
 
4
To check tightness of cooling systems, food and the hydraulic drive of brakes, a condition of hoses and tubes
+
 
 
 
 
5
To check a side play of a steering wheel
+
 
 
 
 
6
To check the level of cooling liquid
+
 
 
 
 
7
To check a state and a tension of a belt of the drive of the generator
+
 
 
 
 
8
To check the level and density of electrolyte of the rechargeable battery
+
 
 
 
 
9
To check operation of the generator, lighting, the light and sound alarm system, control devices, a heater, screen wipers, washers, heating of back glass, the electric drive of external mirrors, heating of front seats
+
 
 
 
 
10
To check operation of the economizer of compulsory idling and the starting arrangement of the carburetor, system zazhiganiya1
+
 
 
 
 
11
Existence of foreign knocks and noise of the engine, coupling, transmission and shaft of the drive of forward wheels; gear shifting clearness
+
 
 
 
 
12
To check the coupling pedal course
 
+
 
 
 
13
To check overall performance of forward and back brakes
+
 
 
 
 
14
To check oil level in the transmission
+
 
 
 
 
15
To check adjustment of the parking brake and a free wheeling of a pedal of a brake
 
+
 
 
 
16
To check efficiency of the vacuum amplifier of brakes
 
 
+
 
 
17
To check operability of the regulator of pressure
 
+
 
 
 
18
To check the level of brake fluid
+
 
 
 
 
19
To tighten fastenings of units, knots and details of the chassis and engine
 
+
 
 
 
20
To adjust a tension of a gear belt of the drive of the mechanism of gas distribution
+
 
 
 
 
21
To replace the filtering element of the air filter: - the carburetor engine - the engine with fuel injection
+
+
 
 
 
22
To adjust gaps in gas-distributing mekhanizme2
 
 
+
 
 
23
To adjust idling turns with control of toxicity fulfilled gazov1
+
 
 
 
 
24
To replace an oil filter and oil in an engine case
+
 
 
 
 
25 26
To replace oil in a box peredach3 to Replace cooling zhidkost3
 
 
 
 
+ +
27
To smooth out and grease plugs and clips of the rechargeable battery
 
+
 
 
 
28 29
To balance wheels and to rearrange according to the scheme Adjust the Angles of Installation of Forward Wheels
 
+ +
 
 
 
30
To replace a gear belt of the drive of the mechanism of gas distribution
 
 
 
 
+
31
To replace spark plugs new
 
+
 
 
 
32
To smooth out a collector of a starter, to check wear and a prileganiye of brushes, to clear and grease starter drive details
 
 
+
 
 
33
To smooth out contact rings of the generator, to check wear and a prileganiye of brushes
 
 
 
+
 
34
To check a condition of blocks of forward brakes
+
 
 
 
 
35
To check a condition of blocks of back brakes
 
+
 
 
 
36
To replace brake zhidkost4
 
 
+
 
 
37
To adjust the direction of light bunches of headlights
 
 
+
 
 
38
To wash out and blow details of the carburetor and the fuel pump. To check and if necessary to adjust fuel level in the float-operated camera
 
+
 
 
 
39
To replace the filter of thin purification of fuel: - the carburetor engine - the engine with fuel injection
+
+
 
 
 
40
To grease the rubbing sites of the limiter of opening of doors, the hinge and a spring of a cover of the hatch of the fuel tank, keyholes of doors and a trunk lid
 
+
 
 
 
41
To grease loops of doors
+
 
 
 
 
42
To clean drainage openings of doors and thresholds
+
 
 
 
 
43
To replace the concentration sensor kisloroda5
 
 
 
 
+
44
To clear and wash out details of system of ventilation of a case
 
 
 
+
 


Regularly through each 500–600 km of a run (or before each departure) check oil levels in a case of the engine, cooling liquid in a broad tank, brake fluid in a tank of a hydraulic actuator of brakes, electrolyte in the rechargeable battery, and also air pressure in tires.
Oil level in a case of the engine needs to be checked on the cold idle engine. Level has to be between risks "MIN" and "MOVE" of the index.
Replacement of oil is made on the warm engine. For discharge of the fulfilled oil it is necessary to turn off a stopper in the case pallet.
The oil filter is changed, having turned off it from the block of cylinders. Before installation of a new oil filter its sealing ring is oiled engine. The new filter is wrapped to a contact of a sealing ring of the block of cylinders, and then by effort of hands dovorachivat it on 3/4 turns.
Level of brake fluid at the established cover and new overlays of brake mechanisms has to reach the lower edge of a jellied mouth.
At the same time it is necessary to check serviceability of operation of the sensor of emergency level. For this purpose it is necessary to press from above the central part of a protective cap. At the same time in a combination of devices the control lamp has to light up if ignition is included.
The control alarm lamp of critical condition of the working brake system lights up when liquid level in a tank fell below a tag of "MIN" that at partially worn-out or new overlays of blocks of brake mechanisms speaks about loss of tightness of system and about liquid leak. Dolivka of liquid in this case is carried out only after restoration of tightness of system.
If the hydraulic actuator of brakes is serviceable, lowering of the level of liquid in a tank is connected with wear of overlays of blocks of brake mechanisms. Lowering of the level of liquid to a tag of "MIN" indirectly testifies to their extreme wear. In this case it is necessary to conduct direct control of a condition of blocks.
Checking technical condition of brakes, previously clear forward and back brakes of dirt, wash out warm water and dry up compressed air. It is not allowed to apply at the same time any mineral solvents as they can cause damage of protective caps and sealants of hydraulic cylinders.
The polluted overlays of blocks, disks and drums clear a metal brush and wash out detergents. If on slips traces of brake fluid are found, it is necessary to find and remove the causes of its emergence. In maintenance time preserve brake shoes, disks and drums against hit on them of oil or lubricant.
Level of cooling liquid in a broad tank has to be always 25-30 mm higher risks of "MIN". You carry out check of level and opening of a stopper of a tank for a dolivka of liquid only on the cold engine. After a liquid dolivka the stopper of a tank has to be densely wrapped as the broad tank at the working and heated-up engine is under pressure.
As a last resort it is possible to add clear water to the cooling system. But at the same time temperature of freezing of mix increases and corrosion resistance of an aluminum radiator decreases. Therefore at the first opportunity it is necessary to execute repair of system and to fill in in it cooling liquid.
Check of level and density of electrolyte in the rechargeable battery is described in subsection. "Rechargeable battery".
Air pressure in tires, including a spare wheel, is checked by the manometer. We recommend to check periodically the manometer at the enterprise of maintenance.
If continuous pressure drop of air in the tire is observed, check by means of soap solution whether there is no leak of air through a gate zolotnik. In case of leak of air tighten a zolotnik a key on the end of a cap and if it does not help, replace it new.
If pressure falls at a serviceable zolotnik, then using the special sealant enclosed to the car repair the tire.
To avoid damages of the pressurizing tire zakraina layer, dismantle and it you install by means of special adaptation or on the tire machine in repair shop.
Not to break balancing of a wheel, before a razbortovka make a mark chalk on the tire against the gate, and at installation install the tire on this tag.
After installation of new tires surely balance wheels at the enterprise of maintenance.
At operation of the car with tubeless tires avoid grinding of wheels to borders of roads and bystry driving on roads with the broken covering (hollows, potholes, etc.) as damage of a rim of a wheel can cause loss of tightness of the tire and an imbalance of a wheel. At emergence during the movement of vibrations it is necessary to check balancing of wheels.